Linda Hall Library
Science, Engineering & Technology Information for the World

Edward Frankland

Sir Edward Frankland, an English chemist, was born Jan. 18, 1825. In 1852, Frankland read a paper to the Royal Society of London, in which he proposed the concept of valence (or valency, as the British call it). Frankland pointed out that every element tends to...

James Ussher

Archbishop James Ussher, an Irish cleric, was born Jan. 4, 1581. Ussher was quite a respectable scholar, but he is remembered today primarily for the first paragraph of his Annales Veteris Testamenti (Annals of the Old Testament, 1650) and its marginal note. The...

Frederick Hope

Frederick William Hope, an English entomologist and a man of wealth and privilege, was born Jan. 3, 1797. He earned degrees at Christ Church, Oxford and was appointed to a living in Shropshire, but because of poor health, he never preached at all, instead devoting his...

Otto van Kotzebue

Otto von Kotzebue, an Estonian-born officer in the Russian navy, was born Dec. 30, 1787. In 1815, he set out from Finland as commander of the small brig Rurik to search for a passage from the Bering Strait across the Arctic to Baffin Bay (this was 3 years before the...

Maarten Schmidt

Maarten Schmidt, a Dutch/American astronomer, was born Dec. 28, 1929. In 1960, a new kind of deep-space object, known as a quasar, was discovered. Quasars are intense sources of radio energy, yet they are barely perceptible as points of light, hence the name:...