Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering, & Technology
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Water Supply
Chicago Lake Tunnel
Chicago River Reversal

The Lake Tunnel in Chicago

The Two-Mile Crib
Digging the Lake Tunnel
Chicago Water Tower

Centuries of Civil Engineering

The Tunnels and Water System of Chicago:
Under the Lake and Under the River
.
Chicago: J.M. Wing & Co., 1874.
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The two-mile tunnel under Lake Michigan proposed by Ellis Chesbrough in 1863 brought him international fame when it was completed and, with its remarkable Two-mile Crib intake structure, was heralded as the eighth wonder of the world. Tunnel construction began in May 1864 and then continued for 24 hours a day and six days a week. A lower semicircular arch was dug and built about six feet in advance of the upper arch. Two men could work side by side, with the miners in front and the masons laying brick about 10-20 feet behind.

Two small mules were found to work in the tunnel, pulling railroad cars to move clay out and building materials in. Digging proceeded first from the shore end and later from the lake end of the tunnel. Chesbrough and a few other dignitaries descended into the tunnel to remove the final inches separating the two tunnels in November 1866. The mayor placed the final masonry stone, and fresh water from the lake entered the tunnel for the first time with great fanfare in March 1867, bringing pure unpolluted water into the city through the structure.

 

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