Marguerite Perey

Marguerite Perey, a French radiochemist, was born Oct. 19. 1909. Perey came from a middle-class family on the outskirts of Paris.  She wanted to become a physician, but her family could not afford the cost.  Instead, she attended a vocational school for laboratory...

Peter Halkett

Peter Halkett, a British naval officer, was born Oct. 16, 1820. Halkett grew up in the heady decade when attempts were first made to discover a Northwest passage through the Arctic, and the worst disaster occurred during the overland expedition of John Franklin...

Frank Hurley

Frank Hurley, an Australian photographer, was born Oct. 15, 1885. Hurley was the photographer on Ernest Shackleton’s trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914. Their ship, the Endurance, got no further than the Weddell Sea, where it was frozen in for some months and...

Eugénie Feytis Cotton

Eugénie Feytis Cotton, born Oct. 13, 1881, enjoyed two incomparable advantages for a young woman aspiring to be a scientist in 19th-century France. First, her parents encouraged her, ignoring provincial opinions in Soubise and straining their finances to provide her...

Max von Laue

Max von Laue, a German physicist, was born Oct. 9, 1879.  In 1912, Laue hypothesized that if X-rays are electromagnetic waves, and if crystals have a regular lattice-like structure, then one might bounce X-rays off a crystal to produce an interference pattern that...