Georg Markgraf

Georg Markgraf, a German astronomer and naturalist, was born Sep. 20, 1610. In 1638, he departed for Brazil to enter the service of Count Johan Maurits of Nassau, who had just taken command of the Dutch sugar colony at Recife. One of Markgraf’s responsibilities...

Johann Baptist von Spix

Johann Baptist von Spix, a German naturalist, was born Feb. 9, 1781. In 1817, he left Munich for Brazil, at the request of King Maximillian Joseph of Bavaria, and in the company of the botanist Carl von Martius. They explored much of the interior, then separated, and...